author：Armer, C. F., et al.
journal：Journal Of Solid State Electrochemistry
The structural and electrochemical effects of electrospun V2O5 with selected redox-inactive dopants (namely Na+, Ba2+ and Al3+) have been studied. The electrospun materials have been characterised via a range of analytical methods including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The incorporation of dopants in V2O5 was further studied with computational modelling. Structural analysis suggested that the dopants had been incorporated into the V2O5 structure with changes in crystal orientation and particle size, and variations in the V4+ concentration. Electrochemical investigations using potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that electrochemical performance might be dependent on V4+ concentration, which influenced electronic conductivity. Na+- or Ba2+-doped V2O5 offered improved conductivities and lithium ion diffusion properties, whilst Al3+ doping was shown to be detrimental to these properties. The energetics of dopant incorporation, calculated using atomistic simulations, indicated that Na+ and Ba2+ occupy interstitial positions in the interlayer space, whilst Al3+ is incorporated in V sites and replaces a vanadyl-like (VO)(3+) group. Overall, the mode of incorporation of the dopants affects the concentration of oxygen vacancies and V4+ ions in the compounds, and in turn their electrochemical performance.